Dott.ssa MORENA PEGGI Psicologa e Psicoterapeuta,

 Terapeuta Practitioner EMDR, Mediatrice Familiare

Studio di Psicologia Clinica e Forense

"Il benessere viene

dalla mente"

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ATTACCHI DI PANICO

Posted on 6 March, 2016 at 6:00

L’ATTACCO DI PANICO

L’Attacco di Panico si manifesta come un periodo di paura o disagio intensi in assenza di un vero pericolo e accompagnata da almeno 4 dei seguenti sintomi:

 

palpitazioni, tachicardia

sudorazione

tremori

sensazione di soffocamento o dispnea

sensazione di asfissia

dolore o fastidio al petto

nausea o disturbi addominali

sensazione di sbandamento, instabilità, testa leggera, svenimento

derealizzazione (sensazione di irrealtà) o depersonalizzazione (sensazione di essere staccati dal proprio corpo)

paura di perdere il controllo o di impazzire

paura di morire

formicolii o intorpidimenti

brividi o vampate di calore

Gli Attacchi di Panico possono essere inaspettati o contestuali a situazioni specifiche (come ad esempio trovarsi in un ascensore) e solitamente raggiungono l’apice in circa 10 minuti.

 

Chi ne soffre può iniziare a temere di rivivere l’attacco di panico stesso, alimentando ansia anticipatoria (paura di aver paura), che diventa fattore scatenante di successivi attacchi. Chi ne soffre può cominciare ad evitare determinati contesti, che si pensa possano attivare il panico o svolgere determinate attività solo se accompagnati da qualcuno, limitando in modo significativo l’autonomia personale fino al ritiro da alcune situazioni prima ritenute piacevoli.

 

In questo modo si costruisce e si mantiene un circolo vizioso, in cui la paura di aver paura può arrivare a ostacolare le attività della vita quotidiana e il raggiungimento di obiettivi personali.

 

LA TERAPIA DEL DISTURBO DA ATTACCHI DI PANICO

La Terapia Cognitiva Comportamentale (TCC) è un intervento di prima scelta nel trattamento dei Disturbi di Attacco di Panico, indicato nelle linee guida internazionali. Inizialmente si focalizza su l’interruzione dell’evitamento di attività o luoghi, con lo scopo di ripristinare le abitudini e ritornare alla propria routine. A ciò si affianca l’intervento psicoeducativo, attraverso cui vengono fornite informazioni sul disturbo, sulla modalità di insorgenza e sui fattori di mantenimento (mediante la ricostruzione del circolo vizioso del panico). Successivamente, l’obiettivo si sposta verso la modifica del rapporto con l’emozione di paura e con possibili segnali corporei negativi. Si passa poi a individuare e modificare i pensieri disfunzionali (ad esempio, “sento il cuore battere forte, quindi mi sta per venire un infarto”) che sono spesso all’origine dell’attacco di panico.

 

In una seconda fase della terapia, viene esplorato il significato dell’attacco di panico in relazione all’immagine di sé, allo scopo di comprendere quali cambiamenti nella vita dell’individuo hanno generato la vulnerabilità a improvvisi vissuti di ansia e paura.

 


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